Leucoderma, also called Vitiligo, is an autoimmune disorder wherein the immune system of the body attacks the healthy cells and, in turn, starts affecting the body. The condition is characterized by white patches on the skin that develops as a result of melanocytes within the skin. These are the cells that are responsible for the skin pigment melanin that gives color to the skin. The white patches appear when the melanocytes die off. The condition is called vitiligo, or leucoderma. The patches are painless and do not even cause any sensation of itching. But, with the sun's exposure, it may cause irritation and even sometimes a burning sensation.

Treatment for Leucoderma

The main objective of the Leucoderma treatment includes the correction of the body’s metabolism brought about by the improvement of the overall immunity. This will enhance the capability of pigmentation in the affected area. Keeping the above in consideration AIMIL brings a comprehensive & long lasting solution in the management of Leucoderma by developing an herbal formula the Lukoskin. It is a scientifically proven and innovative formulation which provides an effective approach in the management of Leucoderma. This unique formulation is developed by Defence Institute of Bio-Energy & research, a wing of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) after exhaustive scientific studies establishing its efficacy & safety by restoring skin colour. Lukoskin is a dual therapy includes oral liquid & ointment; together provide a comprehensive treatment for depigmentation of skin. Lukoskin oral liquid is for internal medication to meet out the nutritional deficiency and to restore the immune system. The ointment is for topical application on vitiligous lesions. Lukoskin formulation contains the following herbal ingredients.

Aatrillal (Ammi majus L.) : Ammi majus is well known in Egypt where, around 2000 B.C., the juice of Ammi majus was rubbed on patches of vitiligo after which patients were encouraged to lie in the sun. In the 13th century, vitiligo was treated with a tincture of honey and the powdered seeds of a plant called "aatrillal," which was abundant in the Nile River Valley. The plant has since been identified as Ammi majus but the trade name Aatrillal is still used today to refer to the yellowish-brown powder made from its seeds. In 1947, I. H. Fahmy and H. Abu-Shady isolated two active crystalline bitter substances, close to the furocourmarines, namely xanthotoxin (Ammoidin) and imperatorin ( Ammidin) from the seeds of Ammi majus.

The plant is originated in Egypt but now it is successfully cultivated in India. It is the principal commercial source of Xanthotoxin, a drug used to treat psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and some cutaneous lymphomas in conjunction with exposing the skin to UVA light from lamps or sunlight. Besides, it is also used as diuretic, blood purifier, detergent, emmenogogue, and has antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties. A number of clinical studies have been carried out with the Aatrilal in the treatment of vitiligo that have shown significant results.

Bakuchi, (Psoralea corylifolia L. syn. Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik) : Psoralea corylifolia, commonly known as babchi, is a popular herb, which has since long been used in traditional Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its magical effects to cure various skin diseases such as psoriasis, leucoderma, and leprosy. The seed and fruit contain variety of furanocoumarins, which contain psoralens that promote pigmentation.  It is used externally to treat various skin ailments including leprosy, leucoderma and hair loss. This causes the skin to produce new pigment when exposed to sunlight and is used for treating vitiligo and psoriasis. The antibacterial action of the fruit inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosThe fruit is gathered when ripe in the autumn and can be dried for later use. Besides, the seeds are having properties like anthelmintic, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, aromatic, astringent, bitter, cardiac, cytotoxic, deobstruent, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant, stomachic and tonic. Seeds are also used in the treatment of febrile diseases, premature ejaculation, impotence, lower back pains, frequent urination, incontinence, bed wetting etc.

Kaunch (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC : Mucuna pruriens has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for over two thousand years. It has an affinity for all of the tissues in the body, but is especially suited to balance the nervous, reproductive, and digestive systems. It is an exceptional plant. On the one hand it is a good source of food, as it is rich in crude protein, essential fatty acids, starch content, and certain essential amino acids and minerals such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and manganese. On the other hand, it also contains various anti-nutritional factors, such as protease inhibitors, total phenolics, oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose, verbascose), and some cyclitols with anti-diabetic effects. The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentration of palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The main phenolic compound is L-dopa (5%), which is responsible to cure Parkinson disease, and seeds contain some components that are able to inhibit snake venom. Because it promotes smooth muscle contractions and ushers in a spreading quality, Mucuna pruriens can help foster healthy digestive function and promote proper elimination. Also, since Mucuna pruriens contributes to regulating so many antioxidants, is known to help in releasing energy by maintaining optimal metabolism levels and it strengthens the immune systems and also helps in organ regeneration. Multiple scientific reports suggest that Mucuna pruriens possesses pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-epileptic and anti-microbial activities.

Ghrit Kumari (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.):  Aloe vera has been used for centuries and is currently more popular than ever. It is cultivated worldwide, primarily as a crop for "Aloe gel," which comes from the leaf. Aloe vera is widely used today in Food as a flavouring, Cosmetics, Food supplements, and Herbal remedies. Aloe vera is used in traditional medicine as a skin treatment. It contains 75 potentially active constituents: vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids and amino acids. Aloe vera gel has been reported to have a protective effect against radiation damage to the skin. Though,exact role is unknown, but following the administration of Aloe vera gel, an antioxidant protein, metallothionein is generated in the skin, which scavenges hydroxyl radicals and prevents suppression of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the skin. It reduces the production and release of skin keratinocyte-derived immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and hence prevents UV-induced suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity. Aloe vera gel can be used both internally and externally. The gel is natural remedy for vitiligo. Aloe vera has been known to soften and heal the skin and make the white spots disappear because of the cell remediation as well as the cell regeneration properties of it. It is good for the skin, inhibits inflammation and has a positive effect on the autoimmune system. Healing properties exhibited by nutrients in aloe gel help to lighten the appearance of white spots.

Sticky nature of aloe gel helps to remove impurities piled over the skin. Gibberellins and Glucomannan residing in aloe gel exhibit healing, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory abilities. Rejuvenating property of this sticky gel improves skin texture. Fatty acids housed in aloe gel hydrates skin and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamins like C, E and A packed in the aloe gel helps to promote collagen, elastin production and fade white patches. Internal consumption of aloe vera juice can improve the immune system of the human body. Researchers say that assorted properties in aloe gel can guard skin against inflammation and harmful effect of UV rays.

Krishna Tulsi (Ocimum americanum L.):  Ocimum americanum, known as American basil or "hoary basil", is an annual herb with white or lavender flowers. It is used for medicinal purposes. Despite the misleading name, it is native to Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, China, and Southeast Asia. This plant contains many aromatic and volatile oils and the main constituents are Eugenol and Thymol. The active principals of Ocimum americanum comprising of phenols, flavonoids, saponins and tannins have been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro. The Main chemical constituents are volatile oils include methyl cinnamate, methylheptenone, methylnonylketone, d-camphor, citral, ocimin, methylchavicol, linalook, nevadensin, salvigen- in, β-sitoseterol, β-selinene, betulinic, ursolic, oleanolic acids, flavonoids, pectolinarigenin-7–methylenther and nevadensin. Polysaccharides composed of xylose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acids. Hoary basil also contains protein, fibre, Calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc, manganese  and vitamin C. Therefore, the leaves of hoary tulsi are a good source of phytochemicals and nutrients that can be harnessed to combat nutritional deficiencies. The main uses of Krishna Tulsi are antimicrobial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and anti-diabetic. Leaves are useful in helminthiasis, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, dysentery, leprosy, pruritus, parasitic, vomiting, poisonous affections, haemoptysis, strangury, migraine, malaria and fever. Seeds are useful in hyperdipsia, malaria, migraine and emaciation. In traditional medicine, hoary basil is used for several ailments such as coughs, catarrh, respiratory problems, rheumatism, renal colic and calcifications. Therefore, leaves are used in the treatment of skin diseases. The methanol extract of Ocimum americanum have both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner which supported its use an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in folk medicine. This may be useful source of lead components in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Recent scientific study showed that Ocimum americanum leaves contain biologically active components with effective antioxidant activity and thus could be used for the management of radical related diseases and cancer.

Bal Jadi (Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don) I. M. Johnston ) : Arnebia benthamii is one of the promising folklore medicinal plants which is being traditionally used over the years for the treatment of various diseases. Recent studies showed that the plant has got a broad spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and has a promising potential for treating skin diseases. The plant contains alkaloids, phenols, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. The roots of Arnebia species contain mixture of naphthoquinones including derivatives of alkannin and shikonin. These phytochemicals are potent pharmaceutical substances that showed significant biological activities including antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Recent scientific studies determined the radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the aerial and root extracts of Arnebia benthamii, demonstrate that these might be proposed as a dietary supplements as antioxidant for the prevention and/or treatment of conditions that occur due to oxidative damage and can protect DNA damage by hydroxyl radical. Arnebia benthamii which possess antioxidant property have also shown high therapeutic value in managing various disorders such as depression.

Chameli (Jasminum officinale L.): Jasmine has been known since ancient times as the “Queen of Flowers.” Jasmine is a potent medicinal herb with several impressive health benefits. Aside from anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties, jasmine boasts mild sedative effects and offers antioxidant protection against free radical molecules and oxidative stress as a result of its phytochemical content. Jasmine is reported to be analgesic, antidepressant, antiseptic, expectorant, aphrodisiac, sedative, stomachic, diuretic, depurative, astringent, stimulating, anti-oxidizing, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory in nature. Jasmine flower is a rich source of volatile oil, indol and jasminol. The Jasmine plant is known to have antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor properties. The plant contains linalol, triterpenes, benzyl-acetate, jasmone, resin, glycoside, phenols, alkaloid, salicylic acid, terpenoids, jasminine, tannin, saponins and flavonoids. Jasmine is used to enhance the immunity of the body, useful in the treatment of anxiety, stress, sunstroke, and other infections, and helps in preventing cancer. Leaves are used in treatment of swollen spongy gums, ulcers, and loose teeth, tooth-ache, skin diseases, pain and pus in ear, ulcer, painful periods, and wound. Flowers are used in eye diseases, ulcers, skin diseases, itching, diseases of teeth etc. Jasmine oil has anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, and sedative properties and used in treatment of depression, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions and in child birth.

Til (Sesamum indicum L. ): Sesamum indicum, one of the oldest oilseed crops, is used for its nutritional, medicinal, and industrial purposes. Sesame is an important source of phytonutrients such as omega-6 fatty acids, flavonoid phenolic anti-oxidants, vitamins, and dietary fibre with potential anti-cancer, as well as health promoting properties. Sesame seeds are rich in oil, protein, mineral ash, crude fibre, oxalates and soluble carbohydrates and phytate and lignans (e.g., sesamin and sesamolin). Seeds are full of zinc, copper, calcium, vitamin B1, magnesium and dietary fibre. The seed is diuretic, emollient, galactogogue, lenitive and tonic, and acts as a tonic for the liver and kidneys. It is taken internally in the treatment of premature hair loss and greying, convalescence, chronic dry constipation, dental caries, osteoporosis, stiff joints, dry cough etc. Sesame protein is very important as a protein source for human consumption due to the presence of balanced amino acid composition, especially sulphur containing amino acid methionine, which is very rare in other plant proteins. Sesame contains rich bioactive food components that not only help to ensure adequate nutrition, but may exert regulative activities in the human organism beyond basic nutrition, which are claimed to be health-enhancing components used to reduce the risk of disease or to enhance certain physiological functions like ACE inhibitor, opioid, immunomodulatory, mineral binding, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, and cytomodulatory effects. Studies have revealed the potential of sesame meal as a source of diverse types of hydrophilic phyto-nutrients with well-defined functional properties, mostly lignan glucosides which are recognized as the natural antioxidant. Sesame oil contains vitamin E in abundance along with vitamin B complex and vitamin A which helps nourish and rejuvenate skin. These vitamins and minerals play a variety of noteworthy roles in keeping the skin in the pink of health. It can act as moisturizer, emollient, and anti-inflammatory therapy. Sesame oil is known to lock in toxins in the skin and wash them away.

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