Valeriana jatamansi Jones.
English : Indian Valerian, Hindi : Mushkbala, Sugandhabala, Sanskrit : Kalanusari, Kalanusarika, Nata, Urdu : Tagar, Punjabi : Mushkobala, Sugandhbala, Gujrati : Tagar Ganthoda, Tagar Gantho, Ghodawaj, Assamese : Tagar, Bengali : Tagar Paduka, Kannada : Mandibattal, Mandyavanthu, Mandibattalu, Tagar, Kashmiri : Bala, Mushkbala, Malayalam : Thakaram, Marathi : Tagar, Ganthode, Oriya : Tagarapaduka, Jalashiuli, Tamil : Tagarai, Telugu : Grandhi Tagaramu.
Tagar is globally distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and South West China. Within India, it is found in the temperate Himalayas and in Meghalaya (Khasia and Jaintia hills) up to an altitude ranges from 1500 to 3600 m. It is a hairy perennial herb growing up to 4 feet, rhizomes dug in autumn, well washed with water and dried. Rhizomes are about 4-8 cm long and 4-10 mm thick pieces, dull yellowish-brow. sub-cylindrica1 and dorsiventrally somewhat flattened, rough, slightly curved and unbranched, upper surface marked with raised encircling leaf scars, under surface bearing numerous, small, circular prominent, root scars and a few stout rootlets, crown bearing remains of aerial stems with scale leaves, fracture short and horny, stolon connecting rhizomes stout, 1-5 mm long and 2-4 mm thick, yellowish-grey in colour, longitudinally wrinkled, usually with nodes and internodes and bearing adventitious roots, occasionally thin stolons 1-2 mm thick, root, yellowish-brown, 3-5 cm long and 1 mm thick, odour, strong and reminiscent of isovaleric acid, taste, bitter and somewhat camphoraceous.
Main chemical constituents of tagara are Essential oils. It is also contains valerianine, valerine, actinidine, chatinine, shyanthine, isovaltrate, valtrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba), isovaleric acid, valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid, hydroxyvalerenic acid, hesperidin.
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya, Guna : Laghu, Snigdha, Vipaka : Katu, Virya : Usna, Karma : Visaghna, Tridosahara, Raktadosahara, Manasadoshara.
Netraroga, Apasmara, Unmada, Siroroga.
It is useful in treating eye diseases, anxiety, breathlessness, bronchitis, epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, migraines, giddiness and fainting fits. It is also useful in curing gastrointestinal conditions like diverticulitis, irritable bowel, colic, nervous dyspepsia, nervous stomach, stimulates digestion, and stomach cramps.