English NameLead ore
DefinitionSauvīrā®jana is a lead ore containing galena (PbS) mineral.
SynonymsSamsk¨rta : Nīlānjana, Krsnanjana
Regional NameBangali - Suramā, English - Galena, Lead ore, Gujarati - Suramo, Hindi - Suramā, Kālā Suramā, Marathi - Suramā, Tamil - Vangam (S.F.I.), Telugu - Sauvirā®janamu, Surmā rayi, Urdu - Surmah Siyah, Kohal Isphahani, Sang-e-surma (N.F.U.M.)
Origin and occurrence:Sauvīrānjana occurs in metamorphic as well as sedimentary rocks in the form of disseminations, veins or lodes. It occurs mostly in pure cubic crystal form and also in ore form associated with rock mass. Sauvīrānjana invariably occurs in association with sphalerite (ZnS), their host rock generally being limestone, dolomite and other calc-magnesium rich rocks. Chalcopyrite and pyrite may co-occur in small amount. Silver in minor quantity is always associated. Trace amount of Arsenic, Iron, Cadmium, Gold, Bismuth and Antimony is also reported in Sauvīrānjana. In India, Sauvīrānjana occurs mostly at Zawar, Aghucha, Rajpura-Dariba, Deri - Basanthgarh and Gugra in Rajasthan, Bandalamottu and Zangamarajupal in Andhra Pradesh, Ambaji in Gujarat, Sargipalli in Orissa and Gorubathan in West Bengal. Mining of Sauvīrānjana from most of these areas is carried out by Hindustan Zinc Limited (A unit of Vedanta), producing more than 90% lead ore in the country.
Physical PropertiesNature : Usually lumps and heavy cubic crystals, Colour : Grey, Streak : Grey, Cleavage : Cubic, Fracture : Even, Lustre : Metallic, Tenacity : Brittle, Transparency : Opaque, Hardness : 2 to 3, Sp. Gr. : 7 to 8
Chemical Properties:Effect of Heat: Charcoal Test: When heated on charcoal through blow pipe, Sauvīrā®jana fuses easily, emits sulphurous fumes and on continued heating yields a globule of metallic lead (Appendix-3.4.4). Effect of Acids:
- Take about 5 g of finely powdered (150 mesh) Sauvīrānjana in a test tube. Add 10 ml dilute nitric acid and heat. It evolves brownish fumes.
- Take about 5 g finely powdered (150 mesh) Sauvīrā®jana in a test tube. Add 10 ml dilute hydrochloric acid and heat. It evolves hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas, as detected by its odour of rotten eggs. Assay:
- Sauvīrānjana in ore form should contain not less than 50% Lead (Pb) when analysed by A. A. S. (Appendix-3.2.2).
- Sauvīrānjana in ore form should contain not less than 10% Sulphur when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.1.8).
- Sauvīrānjana in ore form should contain not less than 500 ppm Silver (Ag) when analysed by A. A. S. (Appendix-3.2.1). Heavy metals and Arsenic: Sauvīrānjana in ore form should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: - Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = 22 ppm (Appendix-3.2).
- Other Elements: Sauvīrānjana in ore form may contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:- Copper = 70 ppm, Gold = 0.10 ppm and Zinc = 20 ppm (Appendix-3.1 & 3.2).
Distinction from ŚrotonjanaCubic cleavage, greater Sp.Gravity and darker colour of Sauvīrānjana distinguish it from Śrotonjana (Sb2S3).
ŚodhanaShall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.
- A®jana : 1 part
- Bh¨¬garāja drava (Pl.) : Q.S. for mardana Method: Powder the A®jana, add quantity sufficient bh¨¬garāja drava (svarasa) and grind till the contents get dried completely.
Properties and ActionsRasa - Tikta, Ka¾āya, Ka°u, Gu´a - Snigdha, Vīrya - Śīta, Vipāka - Madhura, Karma - Grāhī, Vra´a Śodhana, Ropa´a, Rajorodhaka
Therapeutic UsesŚuddha Sauvīrā®jana (External): Netra Roga (diseases of eye) Bhasma of Sauvīrā®jana: Raktapitta (bleeding disorder); vi¾a do¾a (disorders due to poison); Hikkā (hiccup); rajorodha (obstruction of menstrual flow); Raktapradara* (menorrhagia or metrorrhagia or both)
Dose60-125 mg of the bhasma *Precaution: It should not be used for more than three days in Raktapradara.
Important FormulationsIrimedādi taila (for external use), Nayanām¨tā®jana (for external use).