Citrus reticulata Blanco
Citrus chrysocarpa Lush., Citrus crenatifolia Lush., Citrus daoxianensis S.W.He & G.F. Liu, Citrus deliciosa Ten., Citrus depressa Hayata, Citrus mangshanensis S.W.He & G.F.Liu, Citrus nippokoreana Yu.Tanaka, Citrus otachihana Yu.Tanaka, Citrus papillaris Blanco, Citrus ponki Yu. Tanaka, Citrus poonensis Yu.Tanaka, Citrus succosa Yu.Tanaka, Citrus succosa Tanaka,
English : Clementine, Mandarin orange, Hindi : Naramgi, Santara, Sanskrit : Naranga, Narangah, Svadunarangah, Urdu : gul-e-bahar (bahar naranj), Sangtara, Kannada : Kittle, Kiththale, kithaale, kitthale, Naarangi, Marathi : Naarangi, Nowrangi, Santra, Malayalam : Madhuranaranna, Tamil : Kamala, Narangam, Telugu : Naarinja. Bengali : Kamla lebu, Oriya : Santra, Kamala.
Santra is a native of China and Cochin China. It is widely cultivated in all subtropical regions. In India, the areas of concentrated cultivation lie in Assam, Sikkim, Central India, Punjab and Coorg. The principal tracts of cultivation in Assam are Khasi and Jaintia hills and the districts of Cachar and Kamrup, Commercial production in the central region is centred in Nagpur, Bhandara, Wardha, Chindwara and Amraoti districts. In Punjab, main areas are Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur.
It is rich in vitamin C and mineral salts. The fruits contain citric acid and malic acid and their salts, reducing sugars, fatty acids, essential oils, glycosides, pectins, anthocyanins, p-carotene and vitamin C. The main chemical components are a-thujone, a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, y-terpinolene, Linalool, citronellal, terpineol-4-ol, nerol and geranial. The fruit peel contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, tangeritin, citromltin and 5-0- desmethylcitromitin, 6,7-methoxy coumarin, ponkanetin, S-demethylnoblletin, 6,7 - dimethylescutatin, 4,5,7,8 - tetra methoxyfiavone, limonine, cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, p- sitosterol.
Rasa : Amla, Madhura, Guna : Laghu, Snigdha, Vipaka : Amla, Madhura, Virya : Sita.
Pachana, Depana, Medhya, Apasmara, Kasa, Antrasula.
Santra chilka is used in the digestive and respiratory systems. It is applied involving a sense of distension and fullness in the chest and upper middle abdomen combined with loss of appetite, vomiting or diarrhoea, or coughs with copious phlegm, constipation, gastritis, motion sickness, cramps, colic, obesity, fluid retention, bronchitis, mouth ulcers, nervous tension, depression and stress. It can be helpful in strengthening the immune system and to treat colds and flu.