Botanical Name :- Vitex negundo L., Family :- Verbenaceae/Lamiaceae.
Synonyms :- Vitex negundo f. alba C.P'ei, Vitex negundo f. albiflora H.W.Jen & Y.J.Chang, Vitex negundo var. bicolor (Willd.) H.J.Lam.
Regional Name :- English : Five leaved Chaste tree, Hindi : Nirgundi, Sinduar, Sambhalu, Sanskrit : Sinduvara, Samphalika, Nila, Urdu : Sambhalu, Panjangusht, Assam : Aslak, Gujarati : Nagod, Bangali : Nirgundi, Nishinda, Kannada : Lakkigida, Nekkigida, Malayalam : Indranee, Nirgundi, Marathi : Nirgundi, Punjabi : Sambhalu, Banna, Tamil : Karunochchi, Nocchi.
Part Used :- Leaves & Fruits.
Description :- This species is globally distributed in Indo-Malesia, cultivated in America, Europe, Asia and West Indies. Within India, it is found throughout the greater part of the country, ascending up to an altitude of 1500 m. in the outer Himalayas. It is abundant in open-waste lands. It is widely planted as a hedge-plant along the roads and between the fields. Its leaves are digitate, with five lanceolate leaflets, sometimes three. Each leaflet is around 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) in length, with the central leaflet being the largest and possessing a stalk. The leaf edges are toothed or serrated and the bottom surface is covered in hair.
Phytoconstituents :-Alkaloids and Essential Oils. The principal constituents of Nirgundi Phenol, Dulcitol, Alkaloid-Vitricine, B-sitosterol, Camphene, a- And B- Pinenes, Angoside, Acunbin, Casticin, Artemetin, Orientin. The main constituents of the oil are sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene and globulol constituting 61.8% of the oil.
Ayurvedic Properties :- Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya, Guna : Laghu, Vipaka : Katu, Virya : Usna, Karma : Kesya, Vatasamaka, Kaphasamaka, Sophahara, Caksusyam, Anulomna, Smtriprada, Vasaghna.
Ayurvedic Applications :- Sula, Sopha, Vatavyadhi, Kustha, Amavata, Jvara, Sutika, Kandu, Kasa, Pradara, Adhmana, Piha roga, Gulma, Aruci, Krmi, Vrana, Nadi vrana, Karnasula.
Medicinal Uses :- Roots and leaves are used in eczema, Abdominal pains, ringworm and other skin diseases, liver disorders, spleen enlargement, rheumatic pain, gout, fever, toothaches, headache, backache, asthma, cough, ulcers, boils, and wounds.