Botanical Name :- Mesua ferrea L., Family :- Calophyllaceae/ Guttiferae
Synonyms :- Mesua nagassarium (Burm. f.) Kosterm.,
Regional Name :- English : Cobras Saffron, Hindi :Nagkesara, Pila Nagkesar, Sanskrit :Kesara, Nagapuspa, Naga, Hema, Gajakesara, Urdu :Narmushk, Nagkesar, Punjabi :Nageswar, Assamese :Negeshvar, Nahar, Bengali :Nageshvara, Nagesar, Gujrati :Nagkesara, Sachunagkeshara, Nagchampa, Pilunagkesar,Tamranagkesar, Kannada :Nagsampige, Nagakesari, Malayalam :Nangaa, Nauga, Peri, Veluthapala, Nagppu, Nagappovu, Marathi :Nagkesara, Oriya :Nageswar, Tamil :Naugu, Naugaliral, Nagachampakam, Sirunagappu, Telugu :Nagachampakamu.
Part Used :- Flower & Stamens.
Description :- It is native to wet, tropical parts of Sri Lanka, India, southern Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Indochina, the Philippines, Malaysia and Sumatra, where it grows in evergreen forests, especially in river valleys. In the eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Assam in India it grows up to an altitudes of 1,500 m Nagakesara is an evergreen tree, about 15-18 m high with short trunk, often buttressed at the base. Stamen are coppery or golden brown; filament united at base forming a fleshy ring; each stamen 0.9-1.9 cm long; anther about 0.5 cm long, linear, basifixed, containing pollen grains; filament 0.8 - 1.0 cm long; slender, filiform, more or less twisted, soft to touch, quite brittle; connective not visible with naked eye; odour, fragrant; taste, astringent.
Phytoconstituents :- Essential oil, fatty acids and Oleo-resin are the main constituents of Nagakesara. It contains Mesuol , Mesuaxanthofle A and B, Mammeisin , Mamiflegin & mesuol, mesuaferrofle glycoside- cyclohaxodione- mesuaferrol, sitosterol. It is also contains Octadecatriefloic and hexadecanolic acids, mesuanic acid, α- and β- amyrine,β- sitosterol, leucoanthocyanidin, mesuone, mammeigin, mesuagin, mesuaxanthone-A and-B, euxanthone and ferruol-A and –B. Mammeisin is the main chemical constituents obtain from the seeds, while stamens afforded two novel biflavanones are mesuaferrone-A and mesuaferrol-B.
Ayurvedic Properties :- Rasa :Katu, Tikta, Kasaya, Guna :Ruksa, Laghu, Vipaka :Katu, Virya :Usna, Karma :Urdhajatrugatarogahara, Kaphahara, Varnya, Vastivatamayghna.
Ayurvedic Applications :- Raktapitta, Sopharoga, Vastiroga, Vatarakta,
Medicinal Uses :- Nagkesar is an astringent, digestant, anti poisonous. It is used to treat diarrhoea with blood, hiccough, metrorrhagea, menorrhagea, Impotency, leucorrhoea for conception, bleeding piles, excessive thirst, and sweating. It is also used in fever, inflammation, itching, nausea, leprosy, skin disorders and erysipelas.