Helicteres isora L.
Malvaceae / Sterculiaceae.
English : Indian Screw Tree, Kaivum fibre, Hindi : Bhendu, Jonkaphal, Maraphali, Marodphali, Marophali, Sanskrit : Avaratani, Avartani, Avartaphala, Urdu : Marodphalli, Marorphali, Marathi : Kevani, Kewad, Kewan, Kivan, Muradshenga, Tamil : Kaiva, Karuvai, Pirimurukku, Pirivuppani, Tirukupalai, Kannada : Avarthini, Aedamuri, Aavathaarini, Kempukavari, Malayalam : Idampiri, Ishvaramuli, Ishvaramulla, Ishvaramuri, Telugu : Aadasamanthi, Aadasyamali, Adacamanti, Adasamanti, Adashyamali, Adasyamali, Bengali : Antamora, Gujarati : Maradashingh.
It is globally distributed in the Paleotropics from India to Australia. In India, it is distributed from Jhelum Eastwards to Nepal, Bihar, Punjab, West Bengal, Central, Western and Southern India. Within India, it is found almost throughout in moist deciduous forests near flowing water streams. It is a large shrub or small tree (5–8 m in height) with grey bark and alternately arranged hairy, ovate shaped leaves with serrate margins. The bark is greyish in color. Leaves are Flower are brick red or orange-red in color. The fruit consists of five slender angular carpels, twisted like a corkscrew, and together forming a cone about 1.5 to 2 inches long. Fruits are compound pod, twisted like a screw with a pointed end, signifying the name “Indian Screw Tree”. Raw fruits are greenish in color, brown or grey when dried. Seeds are black-brown, highly polished, roughly rhomboid, rectangle or triangular in shape
It contains Diosgenin, Cucurbitacin B, isocucubitacin B, Isorin etc. The fruits also contains Rosmarinic acid and their derivatives; isoscutellarein and their derivatives; D-glucopyranosyl isorinic acid with rosmarinic acid; Helisterculins A and B, Helisorin Gallic acid, Caffeic acid, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid.
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa, Rasa : Kashaya, Vipaka : Katu, Virya : Sheeta.
Pachana, Depana, Kushta, Antrasula, Prameha, Atisar (diarrhoea), Shula (colic) and Krimi (intestinal parasites).
It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, colic, flatulence chronic dysentery, worm infestation, abdominal colic pain, intestinal parasites, urinary tract infection and offensive sores inside the ears etc. It cures aggravated kapha and pitta both from upper and lower parts of the body. It also cures Kushta (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). It is also enhanced brain functioning potency, bone healing, kidney rejuvenation. It improves the immune system, arthritis, hypertension, obesity and many other diseases.