Ocimum americanum L.
Ocimum album Roxb., Ocimum brachiatum Blume, Ocimum canum Sims, Ocimum dichotomum Hochst. ex Benth., Ocimum dinteri Briq., Ocimum fluminense Vell., Ocimum fruticulosum Burch., Ocimum incanescens Mart., Ocimum stamineum Sims, Ocimum thymoides Baker.
English : Hoary Basil, Wild basil, Lemon basil, Hindi : Jangli Tulsi, Kala Tulsi, Kali Tulsi, Rantulsi, Sanskrit : Aranyatulasi, Kshudraparna, Gambhira, Vanabarbarika, Kannada : Hola Thulasi, Naayi Tulasi, Raama Thulasi, Malayalam : Katturamattulasi, Kattu tulasi, Marathi : Ran-tulshi, Raana Thulasi, Tamil : Naaithulasi, Nayitulasi, Nayttulaci, Telugu : Kukkatulasi, Kukka tulassi, Kuppatulasi, Bengali: Kalo-tulashi.
This species is globally distributed in the Pantropics. It is found in tropical Africa, East Asia - China, Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea. Within India, it is found wild along cultivated fields and on waste lands nearly throughout. It is found in the Himalayas from Kumaon to NE India, up to an altitude of 1000 m. It is also found in the Western Ghats and parts of Africa and SE Asia. It is occasionally cultivated in gardens. It is an erect, perennial, aromatic plant usually growing 20 - 50cm tall. It is a woody herb, with stem hairy. Leaves are elliptic, pointed to tapering, base flat or blunt, nearly entire, sparsely hairy or hairless; leaf-stalk up to 2 cm long. Flowers are borne in racemes 13 cm long, densely velvet-hairy. Flowers are 5-7 in each whorl; calyx 3 x 5 mm, upper lip 3 x 3 mm, round, densely hairy. Flower are white, 5 mm long, hairless; filaments hairless. Nutlets are 1.5 mm long, sub-trigonous, minutely pitted, dark brown.
The main chemical constituents are volatile oils include methyl cinnamate, methylheptenone, methylnonylketone, d-camphor, citral, ocimin, methylchavicol, linalool, geraniol, citronellol, nevadensin, salvigen.
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya, Guna : Laghu, Ruksa, Tiksna, Vipaka : Katu, Virya : Usna, Karma : Dipana, Hrdya, Kaphahara, Rucya, Durgandhihara, Vatahara, Pittavardhini.
Pachana, Depana, Asmari, Svasa, Chardi, Hikka, Jwara, Sotha, Kasa, Krmiroga, Kustha, Parsva Sula, Antrasula.
Leaves are useful in diseases helminthiasis, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, dysentery, leprosy, pruritus, parasitic, vomiting, poisonous affections, haemoptysis, strangury, migraine, malaria and fever. Seeds useful in hyperdipsia, malaria, migraine and emaciation. The herb can be used to treat colds, fevers, parasitic infestations on the body and inflammation of joints and headaches. It is also used in the treatment of skin diseases. The paste is also applied to wounds and burns.