Cichorium balearicum Porta, Cichorium byzantinum Clem., Cichorium cicorea Dumort., Cichorium divaricatum Heldr. ex Nyman, Cichorium glaucum Hoffmanns. & Link, Cichorium hirsutum Gren., Cichorium illyricum borb., Cichorium officinale Gueldenst. ex Ledeb.
English : Chicory, Coffeeweed, Radicchio, Radiccio, Succory, Witloof, Hindi : Hinduba, Kasni, Sanskrit : Kasani, Urdu : Bikh kasmi nim kofta, Bikh kasni, Kasni, Kasni sabz, Tukh kasni, Tukhm kasni, Kannada : Chicory, Malayalam : Cikkari, Marathi : Kachani, Tamil : Cikkari, Erumakitam, Kacikikirai, Kacini, Kacinivittu, Kashini, Kasini, Telugu : Kaasni, Kasini.
Seed & Whole Plant.
The plant is native to the temperate parts of the World, globally distributed in Europe, West Asia, Pakistan and India. Within India, it is found wild in Punjab and Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa, Kerala and Kashmir between an altitude range of 1500-2400 m. It is a small perennial shrub growing to a height of 2- 3 feet. The flowers are usually blue colored, 1-1.5 inch in diameter. The root is fleshy with white color inside and brown color outside. The leaves are stalked, lanceolate and unlobed. When flowering, chicory has a tough, grooved, and more or less hairy stem, from 30 to 100 cm (10 to 40 in) tall.
The plant contains sugars (including fructose), pectin, choline, fixed oils (nonvolatile oils) and few bitter glycoside cichorine. It contains inulin, sesquiterpene lactones (including lactucin and lactucopicrin), also known as intybin, coumarins (chicoriin, esculetin, esculin, umbelliferone and scopoletin), and series of glucofructosans. The plant also contains sulphates and phosphates of sodium, magnesium and potassium as well as potassium nitrate. Other constituents found in the herb are tannins, mineral salts, vitamins B, C, K and P, coumarins (umbelliferone, cichoriin), phenolic acids (caffeine acid and ferulin acid, and esters of quinine acid), various flavonoids, essential oil, resin and other substances.
Rasa : Tikta , Guna : Laghu (Light), Ruksha (Dry), Virya : Sheta (Cooling), Vipaka : Katu (Pungent).
Pachana, Depana, Jwara, Kushta, Pradara, Raktadosha, Sotha, Kasa, Antrasula, Prameha, Pilahayakritroga.
It is used in Eye defects, Liver disorders, liver enlargement (hepatomegaly), gallbladder disorders, Diabetes, constipation, Jaundice, anaemia, inflammations, gout, and rheumatism, Respiratory disorders, Cough relief, obstructed menstruation, anorexia, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, flatulence, appetite loss, colic, headache, gout, burning sensation, allergic conditions of skin, insomnia, skin diseases, leprosy, fevers, vomiting, asthma and general debility.