Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees
Justicia paniculata Burm.f., Justicia latebrosa Russell ex Wall.
English : The creat, Kariyat, Hindi : Charayetaah, Chiraita, Kalamegh, Kalmegh, Sanskrit : Bhunimba, Bhunimbah, Kalamegha, Urdu : Bhooinimo, Kannada: Hasi kiriyaatha, Kaala megha, Kreata, Malayalam: Cara-caniram, Kiriyat, Kiriyatta, Marathi: Kirayatem, Olenkirayat, Paale kiraayath, vhadlem, Tamil: Anarivempucceti, Anariyam, Anariyatittam, Gujarathi : Kariyathu, Litu Kariyat, Telugu: Karivaemu, Nela vemu, Bengali : Kalamegh,
Kalmegh is a small herb growing to a height of 1- 3 feet. It is grown as a snake-repellant in households. It is found all over plains of India, Sri Lanka, Malay Peninsula, China and Thailand. This species is globally distributed in Indo-Malesia. Within India, chiefly found in the plains throughout India from Himachal Pradesh to Assam and Mizoram. It is also found in Central India, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and all over Peninsular India. The stem is weak and has small hairs at the top. The flowers are small and white or purplish in colour. The fruits are small, round and the seeds are pale brown in color.
Whole plant contains lactones – andrographolide , 14 – deoxy , 11 – oxo andrographolide , 14 – deoxy 11 , 12 – didehydro – andrographolide , 14 – deoxy andrographolide & meandrographolide , iridoid glucoside , 5 – hydroxyl – 3 , 78 2’– tetraancthoxyflavone, flavonoid 5- hydroxyl-7, 8 – dinecthoxy flavone glucoside ncoandrographolide. The roots contain andrographin, panicolin, apigenin, andrographolide, flavone andrographone, flavonoid glucoside 2’5 dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxy flavone-2-0 ß glucoside & 3 ß hydroxy-5-stignuasa – 9 (11) 22(23) – diene.
Rasa : Tikta (Bitter), Guna : Laghu (Light for digestion), Ruksha, Vipaka : Katu, Virya : Ushna (Hot), Karma : Kaphapitta shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and pitta dosha).
Yakrut uttejaka, Pittasaraka, Recana, Krimighna, Svedajanana, Kusthaghna Jvaraghna, and Sotha.
Kalmegh is used for the treatment of fever, sprue, oedema, for purifying breast-milk, intrinsic haemorrhage, vomiting, fever and inflammation of the liver and jaundice. It is used for the treatment of diseases of the liver, skin diseases like eczema, depigmentation of skin, lack of appetite and purification of the blood and is used as blood purifier. It is also used as a treatment for the common cold, flu, upper respiratory infections, and a variety of infectious diseases. diseases and ailments such as diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, pneumonia, swollen lymph nodes, leprosy, bronchitis, sore throats, tuberculosis, chicken pox, coughs, headaches, ear infection, burns and mumps. treatment for malaria, as a replacement for quinine.