Piper nigrum L.
Piper nigrum var. macrostachyum C. DC.
English : Black Pepper, Hindi : Kalimirch, Sanskrit : Vellaja, Krsna, Usana, Urdu: Filfil Siyah, Kalimirich, Punjabi :Galmirich, Kalimirch, Bengali : Golmorich, Kalamorich, Morich, Gujrati : Kalimori, Kannada: Karimonaru, Menaru, Malayalam: Kurumulaku, Marathi : Kalamiri, Tamil: Milagu, Telugu : Miriyalu, Marichamu
This species is believed to be a native of the hills of South-Western India. It is cultivated in the hot and moist parts of India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia and several tropical countries. Its presence in the wild is currently seen in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, Kerala, Assam, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Maricha plant is a perennial woody climber grows up to a height or length of 10 m or more on supporting trees, poles, or trellises. It is a spreading vine, rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. Fruits are Round, berry-like, up to 6 mm in diameter, green at first but turning red as they ripen, each containing a single seed. 50–60 fruits are borne on each spike. Dried Fruits greyish-black to black, hard, wrinkled, 0.4-0.5 cm in dia, aromatic odour and pungent taste.
It contains Alkaloids and Essential oil. Contains- Piperine 5-10 %, Piperidine, Chavicine, Piperetine, Piperethine, Piperolein A,& B, feruperine, Dihydroferuperine, Citronellol, Cryptone,Dihydrocarveol,a-b acid, Piperonal, Camphene, B- Caryophyllene, B- alanine, Pipecolic and Essential Oil.
Rasa :Katu, Tikta, Guna :Laghu, Ruksa, Tiksna, Vipaka :Katu, Virya :Usna, Karma : Chedi, Chedana, Dipana, Hrdroga, Jantunasana, Medohara, Pittakara, Rucya, Kaphavatajit, Slesmahara, Vatahara, Vataroga.
Krmiroga, Svasa, Sula, Tvagroga.
Fruits are used in digestive tonics, increases the flow of saliva, improve appetite, treat coughs, colds, chills, flu, fever, breathing, heart problems, colic, diabetes, cholera, syphilis, anaemia and piles, Stomach ailments such as dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation and diarrhoea. Sometimes it is used in place of cubebs for gonorrhoea. It is used in the treatment of pain relief, rheumatism, increase circulation, exhaustion, and muscular aches. It is also used in vertigo, paralytic and arthritic disorders. Externally it is used for its rubefacient properties and as a local application for relaxed sore throat and some skin diseases.