Saccharum officinarum L.
Arundo saccharifera Garsault, Saccharum chinense Roxb, Saccharum violaceum Tussac, Saccharum atrorubens Cuzent & Pancher ex Drake, Saccharum monandrum Rottb., Saccharum occidentale Sw.
English : Sugarcane, Hindi : Ikha, Ganna, Sanskrit : Iksu, Urdu : Ganna, Naishkar, Punjabi : Ganna, Assamese : Kusiyar, Bengali : Ganna, Gujrati : Sherdi, Serdi, Kannada : Kabbu Malayalam : Karumbu, Karimpu, Marathi : Ush, Oriya : Akhu, Tamil : Karumbu, Telugu : Gheraku.
Root Stock, sugar.
Ikshu is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. S. officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in).
Ikshu contains Sucrose. It is also contains various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. Iksu stem contain 62 calories, 82.5 g water, 0.6 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 16.5 g total carbohydrate, 3.1 g fiber, 0.3 g ash, 8 mg Ca, 6 mg P, 1.4 mg Fe, 0 mg b-carotene, 0.02 mg thiamine, 0.01 mg riboflavin, 0.10 mg niacin, 3 mg ascorbic acid, per 100 gm.
Rasa-Madhura, Guna-Guru, Sara, Vipaka-Madhura, Virya-Sita, Karma-Balya, Brmhana, Krsya, Kaphahara, Pittahara,Vittahara.
Raktapitta, Mutra Ksaya.
Ikshu is used in the treatment of jaundice, haemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other penis and urinary diseases. It is also used in arthritis, bedsores, boils, cancer, colds, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, eyes, fever, hiccups, inflammation, laryngitis, opacity, skin, sores, sore throat, spleen, tumours, and wounds.