Amaranthus spinosus L.
Galliaria spinosa (L.) Nieuwl.
English : Spiny pigweed, Hindi : Adak-dhatura, Cauleyi, Cholai, Chaulai, Kantio Chandelo, Kataili, Kateli, Kannada : Mulla-dantu, Mulladantu, Mulluharivesoppu, Malayalam : Cerucira, Mullan-chira, Mullanchira, Mullancira, Marathi : Chanalai, Thanduliya, Sanskrit : Alpamarisha, Bahuvirya, Bhandi, Bhandira, Kandera, Kantaki, Tamil : Cemmulli, Cemmullikkirai, Civappumullikkirai, Erumaikkacikacceti, Erumaikkacikam, Telugu : Crramullugoranta.
Chaulai is an annual herb, mostly erect, up to 1.5 m height. It is found through tropical and subtropical latitudes around the world and found in cultivated fields, waste places, roadsides, garbage heaps and abandoned fields. Leaves are glabrous or with sparse hairs on the main veins below, long petiolate, up to 9 cm. The leaf axils bear pairs of fine and slender spines. Flowers green in axillary clusters and branched terminal spikes. Male flowers in the apical part of the spikes.
The leaves contain protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium and many vitamins (A, C, niacin). Leaf also contains anthraquinone derivatives, cardiac glycosides, saponins and amino acids. It also Contains 7-p-coumaroyl apigenin 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, a new coumaroyl flavone glycoside called spinoside, xylofuranoxyl uracil, beta-D-ribofuranosyl adenine, beta-sitosterol glucoside, hydroxycinnamates, quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, betalains, betaxanthin, betacyanin; amaranthine and isoamaranthine, gomphrenin, betanin, b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, linoleic acid, rutin and beta-carotene.
Rasa : Tikta, Katu, Kasaya, Guna : Snigdha, Tiksna, Virya : Usna, Vipaka : Katu, Karma : Vatahara, Kaphahara, Rasayana, Ubhayatobhagahara.
Anaha, Arsa, Grdhrasi, Gandamala, Gulma, Jvara, Kandu, Kaphavataja roga , Krmi, Kustha, Sotha, Prameha, Raktavikara, Tvak roga, Udara , Udavarta,Vrana.
It is Used for fever, bronchitis, snake bites, boils, stomach disorders, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea, acute and chronic gastroenteritis, urinary tract inflammation. Leaves are used as laxative, on boils and as poultice for abscesses, relief bruises, burns, wound, inflammation, internal bleeding, excessive menstruation, vaginal discharges, monorrhagia, gonorrhoea, eczema, ulcerated mouths, nosebleeds, eczema for ulcers and sores, colic and as lactagogue.