Pedalium murex L.
Pedalium microcarpum Decne., Pedalium muricatum Salisb., Rogeria microcarpa Klotzsch.
English : Large Caltrops, Hindi: Bara Gokhru, Bada Gokhru, Pila Gokhru, Sanskrit : Brhat-goksura, Brhatgoksura, Brhatgoksuram, Brihatgokshura, Gokshuru, Goksurah, Srngatika, Malayalam : Kattunjerinjil, Kakkamullu, Aanayiruthimullu, Aananjerinjil, Ananerinnil, Kannada: Ane neggilu, Tamil: Yanai nerunjil, Oriya: Gokhara, Marathi: Gokhura, Mota Gokhru, Gujarati: Kadva gokhru.
It is an annual plant widely distributed in east Africa, Indonesia & India. Within India, it occurs commonly in waste places in the Deccan Peninsula, particularly near the coast, river belts and other sandy areas. It occurs also in Delhi, Rajasthan and Punjab. It is diffuse annual, much branched, spreading, succulent, glandular, up to 60 cm tall. Roots similar to turmeric in colour. Leaves simple, opposite, ovate or oblong-obovate, 1-4.5 cm long, irregularly and coarsely crenate-serrate. Flower axillary and solitary, bright yellow, 1.5-2 cm across, stalk 1-2 mm long, increasing up to 4 mm in fruit. Fruits are blunty 4-angled with stout, sharp, conical horizontal spines from the angles.
It contains Alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, sapogenin, fatty oil and resin.
Rasa - Madhura, Guna - Guru, snigdha, Vipaka - Madhura, Virya - Sita, Karma -Vrsya, Brmhana, Vatanut, Vastisodhana, Asmarihara.
Arsa, Svasa, Sularoga, Daurbalya, Hrdroga, Kasa, Mutrakrcchra.
This plant is useful in strangury, renal and vesicular calculi, aphthae, puerperal diseases, spermatorrhoea, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, cough, asthma, pain, skin diseases, heart troubles, piles, leprosy, inflammation, splenomegaly, dyspepsia, appetizer, flatulence, ulcers, fever and general debility.