Capparis sepiaria L.
Capparis affinis Merr., Capparis emarginata C.Presl, Capparis flexicaulis Hance, Capparis incanescens DC., Capparis trichopetala Valeton, Capparis umbellata R.Br. ex DC.
English : Wild caper bush, Indian caper, Hindi : Baghanai, Kanthari, Kanthor, Hainsa, Kareruaa, Kanthar, Kanthari, Sanskrit : Ahimsra, Ahinsra, Durdharsha, Himsra, Hinsra, Kanthari, Kantharika, Vakrakantaki, Vayastinduka, Kannada : Kanthaari, Kathiramullu, Katukatiri, Musthodi, Mulhukallari, Marathi : Ardanti, Vyaghranakh, Kantharvela, Tamil : Karindu, Pantanki, Kattukathiri, Marandan, Turmokam, Thoratti, Telugu : Nalla uppi, Nallapuyyi, Nallaupli, Nallauppi, Nallavuppi, Gujarati: Kalokantharo, Bengali: Kaliakara.
The plant is a perennial climbing shrub with hooked spines, extremely found in tropical Asia, East Pakistan, Malesia, Indochina, China, Northern Australia and tropical Africa. In India it is distributed throughout the country in the plains. The plant is evergreen, strongly branched, spiny shrub up to 6 m tall, often with scandent stems up to 10 m long. Leaf-blades elliptic, ovate or obovate, 1–6.8 x 0.8–4.4 cm, apically rounded, obtuse or retuse, mucronulate, basally rounded or subcordate; petiole 2–5 mm long, pubescent or glabrescent. Inflorescence is a short terminal raceme, often umbel-like, slightly hairy, up to 20-flowered, sometimes flowers solitary in upper leaf axils. Flowers, 5–20 mm long, pediceled, pubescent or glabrescent. Sepals 4–8 mm long, glabrous outside, puberulous or glabrescent within. Petals oblong, up to 8–9 mm long, glabrous or basally puberulous. Stamens many, 8–13 mm long. Gynophore up to 1.5 cm long; ovary ovoid, c. 2 mm long, with sessile stigma. Fruits are sub globose, many seeded berry; green when young, red brown when ripe, 3 to 4 cm in diameter, on a greatly thickened stalk; seeds are trigonal, 4 to 5 mm long, 3 to 4 mm wide, 2 to 3 mm thick with white thin covering.
The plant contains Thioglucoside glucocapparin, n-triacontane, a-amyrin and fixed oil. It also contains flavonoids, steroids, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, gums, resins, amino acids, proteins and anthraquinones.
Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Tikta, Kasaya, Guna : Laghu, Ruksa, Virya : Usna, Vipaka : Katu, Karma : Kaphahara, Vatahara, Varnya, Visaghna, Kandughna.
Bhrama, Jvara, Kandu, Kotha, Kustha, Pravahika, Raktapradara, Vrana, Sarpavisa, Vatavikara, Visvikara, Pidaka, Graharoga, Mukhadurgandha
It is used to treat Arthritis, Asthma, fever, jaundice, inflammation, diarrhoea and dysentery, Skin diseases, liver disorders.