Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Zingiber officinale var. cholmondeleyi F.M.Bailey, Zingiber officinale f. macrorhizonum (Makino) M.Hiroe, Zingiber officinale var. macrorhizonum Makino, Zingiber officinale f. rubens (Makino) M.Hiroe, Zingiber officinale var. rubens Makino, Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade.
English : Ginger, Hindi : Adarakha, Adrak, Sanskrit : Katubhadra, Srngavera, Urdu : Adrak, Bengali : Ada, Gujrati : Adu, Kannada : Alla, Hasishunti, Malayalam : Inchi, Marathi : Ardrak, Ale, Punjabi : Adi, Adrak, Tamil : Injee, Allam, lakottai, Inji, Telugu : Allamu, Allam.
Adrak is known to have originated and widely cultivated in India and introduced to China after a while. This spice and medicine is recognized for use in major parts of the world especially Europe, Jamaica, Fiji, Indonesia and Australia. Ginger is a creeping perennial rhizomatous herb which can grow to a height of about 0.6-1.8 m tall, leaves are 15-30cm long, Rhizome, laterally compressed bearing short, flattish, ovate, oblique, branches on upper side each having at its apex a depressed scar, pieces about 5-15 cm long, 1.5-6.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1.5 cm thick, externally buff coloured showing longitudinal striations and occasional loose fibres, fracture short, smooth, transverse surface exhibiting narrow cortex (about one-third of radius), a well-marked endodermis and a wide stele showing numerous scattered fibro-vascular bundles and yellow secreting cells, odour agreeable and aromatic, taste, agreeable and pungent.
Adrak contains Volatile Oils containing Cineole zingiberol, and sesquiterpene like zingiberene, bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene, gingerosol in the oleo-resin. It also contains Essential oil, pungent constituents (gingerol and shogaol) and starch.
Rasa : Katu, Guna : Guru, Ruksa, Tiksna, Vipaka : Madhura, Virya : Usna, Karma : Bhedana, Dipana, Hrdya, Pacana, Kaphahara, Rocana, Svarya, Vrsaya Vatahara, Vatakaphapaha.
Sula, Vibandha, Anaha, Sopha, Kantharoga.
It is used in Digestive disorders, dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting, spasms, colic and other stomach problems, osteoarthritis, cancer, ache, pain, inflammation, cough, cold, nausea, preventing flu, asthma and tuberculosis. It relieve impotency, premature ejaculation, involuntary seminal discharge and also spermatorrhoea, relieving painful irregular menstruation and improves immunity