Tuth (Bhasam)

English Name

Copper Sulphate


Tuth is copper sulphate (Cu SO4, 5H2O), also known as blue vitriol, copper vitriol, blue stone or chalcanthite mineral.


Samskrta : Tutthaka

Regional Name

Bangali - Tunte, Tuntiyā, English - Copper Sulphate, Blue vitriol, Gujarati - Morathuthu, Hindi - Nīlā Thothā, Tūtiā, Kannada - Mayuruthutha, Malayalam - Mayilthuththam, Marathi - Moracūda, Tamil - Mayil thuththam, Turken (S.F.I.), Telugu - Mailu tuttham, Melatutu, Urdu - Tutia, Kabood (N.F.U.M.)

Broad Classification

Hydrous cupric sulphate

Origin and occurrence:

Tuth occurs with other hydrated sulphates of copper, and iron in the oxidized form near surface zones of copper sulphide ore deposits. It is found generally deposited with mine purified waters, often on the walls of abandoned mine workings. Also, it is found in the zones of weathering of Copper lodes. In India, natural occurrence of Tuth, in abundance, is uncommon. A little amount of Tuth can be seen near copper mines in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand. Mostly, commercially manufactured Tuth as a chemical is used for Ayurvedic formulations in the country.

Physical Properties

Nature : Crystalline lumps, Colour : Berlin or sky blue, Streak : Colourless, Cleavage : Poor, Fracture : Conchoidal, Lustre : Vitreous, Tenacity : Brittle, Transparency : Translucent, Hardness : 2 to 2.5, Sp. Gr. : 2.12 to 2.30

Optical Properties

Biaxial, Negative, with ηα, 1.447, ηβ, 1.469 and ηγ, 1.472 (Appendix-2) ical Properties: Effect of Heat: 
  • On heating, partially evaporates giving brownish mass.
  • Heating with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) gives black fused mass.
  • Heat on charcoal with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and carbon, it yields metallic copper as observed by its copper red colour.
  • Heat in closed tube, Tuth gives off water, observed as droplets on the upper internal wall of the tube (Appendix-3.4.5).
Solubility in purified water: Take about 10 g accurately weighed fine (150 mesh) powder of Tuth in 250 ml beaker. Add 50 ml purified water to it. Stir the solution till Tuth powder stops dissolving. Put the beaker in sun light till the solution gets completely dried up. Weigh the residue, if any. It should not be more than 10% of the initial weight of the sample.That is, solubility of Tuth in purified water should not be less than 90%. Assay:
  • Tuth should contain not less than 20% Copper (Appendix- 3.1.9 & 3.2.2).
  • Tuth should contain not less than 15% Sulphur and not less than 50% SO4 (Appendix-3.1 & 3.3).
Heavy metals and Arsenic: Tuth should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: - Lead = 226 ppm, Arsenic = 4 ppm and Cadmium = 97 ppm (Appendix-3.2). Other elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:- Iron 4 % when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.1.4). Śodhana Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. Śodhana: [Ref: AFI-Part-I; Appendix-II, Śodhana-21] i) Tuth : 1 Part ii) Rakta Candana kvātha [Ht.Wd] : Q.S. for bhāvanā iii) Ma®ji¾°hā kvātha [Rt.] : Q.S. for bhāvanā iv) Varā [Triphalā] kvātha [P.] : Q.S. for bhāvanā Method: Powder Tuttha, add quantity sufficient Rakta Candana Kvātha and grind till complete moisture gets evaporated. Repeat the process for seven times. The process of levigation is to be repeated in all other liquid media i.e. Ma®ji¾°hā Kvātha and Varā Kvātha individually for seven times each.

Properties and Actions:

Rasa - Katu, Kasāya, Madhura, Guna - Laghu, Sara, Vīrya - Usna, Śīta, Vipāka - Katu, Karma - Kaphapittahara, Lekhana, Bhedana, Balya, Tridosaghna, Rasāyana, Rucikara, Vāmaka, Varnya, Garavisahara, Śūlaghna, Caksusya, Aśmarīhara, Kandughna, Ksārakarmakara, Arśoghna, K¨mighna

Therapeutic Uses:

Krmi (helminthiasis/worm infestation); Prameha (increased frequency and turbidity of urine); Medoroga (obesity); Śūla (pain/colic); Kustha (diseases of the skin); Śvāsa (Asthma); Amlapitta (hyperacidity); Tvak roga (skin disease); Śvitra (Leucoderma /Vitiligo); Arśa (piles); Vrana (ulcer/wound); Nadi  Vrana (sinus); Netra roga (diseases of eyes); Dusta vrana (non-healing ulcer)


15 - 30 mg

Important Formulations:

Jātyādi taila, Nityānanda rasa, Jātyādi ghrta, Mahā visagarbha taila, Kāsīsādi ghrta