Synonyms :- Cracca piscatoria (Aiton) Lyons, Cracca purpurea L., Cracca wallichii (Fawc. & Rendle) Rydb., Galega colonila Buch.-Ham., Galega diffusa Roxb., Galega lanceifolia Roxb., Galega purpurea (L.) L., Tephrosia colonila (Ham.) Benth., Tephrosia diffusa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Tephrosia hamiltonii Gamble, Tephrosia ionophlebia Hayata, Tephrosia lanceifolia Link.
Regional Name :- English : Wild indigo, Hindi : Sarpanka, Sarpankha, Sarphankha, Sarphonka, Sanskrit : Banah, Banapunkhah, Ishupunkhika, Kandapunkha, Urdu : Sarabhuka, Sarphoka, Sarphooka, Tamil : Kolingi, Kattukkolincai, Kannada : Koliniji, Egyali, Phanike, , Malayalam : Kattamari, Katamiri, Telugu : Bonta vempali, Bontavempali, Thellavempali, Vempali, Marathi : Sharapunkha, Udhadi,
Part Used :- Whole Plant.
Description :- It is globally distributed in the Pantropics. Within India, it is said to be found throughout an altitude upto 1850 m. in the Himalayas. It is also sometimes cultivated. Sharpunkha is a perennial erect herb, 30-60 cm in height. Stem is woody, 0.5-1.5 cm thick, cylindrical, slightly angular near the apex, outer surface is green and glabrous. Leaves are impairipinnate, 5-15 cm long. Leaflets: 9-21, glabrous above and obscurely silky beneath, narrow, oblanceolate. Flowers are about 7 mm long, borne in leaf-opposed racemes, blue or purple. Pods: linear, slightly curved, glabrescent. Seeds: 5-10, smooth, greenish-grey.
Phytoconstituents :- Beta-Sitosterol, lupeol, retin, delphinidin chloride, cyaniding chloride, pongamol, solonchocarpin, lanceolatins A and B, karangin, kangone, 5,7-dimethoxy-8, flavanone, 2-methoxy-3-9-dihydroxycoumestone, flevichapparins B and C, methyl karanjic acid and purpurin.
Ayurvedic Properties :- Rasa : Tikta, Kashaya, Guna : laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna, Taste : Bitter, Astringent, Virya : Ushna, Vipaka : Katu.
Ayurvedic Applications :- Pachana, Depana, Jwara, Kushta, Arsha, Sotha, Kasa, Prameha and Pilahayakritroga.
Medicinal Uses :- Roots is useful in inflammations, skin diseases, scrofula, elephantiasis, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, flatulence, diarrhea, rheumatism, haemorrhoea, chronic fever, boils pimples, haemorrhoids, anaemia, strangury, hepatosplenomegaly, verminosis, odontalgia and gingivitis. Leaves are useful in dyspesia, pectrol diseases, syphilis, gonorrhoea and bruises. Seeds: useful in skin diseases and rat poisoning. Seeds are used against worm infection in children. It is used in the treatment of leprosy, ulcers, asthma, bronchitis and tumors, as well as diseases of the liver, spleen, heart, blood and urinary disorders.