Botanical Name :- Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Family :- Apiaceae.
Synonyms :- Foeniculum vulgare var. capillaceum Burnat, Foeniculum vulgare subsp. capillaceum (Burnat) Holmboe, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce (Mill.) Batt. &Trab.,Foeniculum vulgare var. inodorumMaire, Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (C.Presl) Bég., Foeniculum vulgare var. sativumC.Presl, Foeniculum vulgare subsp. sativum (C.Presl) Janch. exHolub, Foeniculum vulgare var. subinodorum (Maire, Weiller&Wilczek) Maire.
Regional Name :- English : Fannel Fruit, Hindi : Saunf, Sanskrit : Misi, Madhurika, Urdu : Saunf, Punjabi : Saunf, Assamese : Guvamuri, Bengali : Marui, Panmauri, Gujrati : Variyali, Kannada : Badisompu, Doddasompu, Kashmiri : Sanuf, Badnai, Malayalam : Kattusatakuppa, Parinjaeragum, Marathi : Badishop, Oriya : Panamadhuri, Tamil : Shombu, Telugu : Sopu.
Part Used :- Fruit.
Description :- This species is native to southern Europe and Asia, cultivated widely throughout the temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world for its aromatic fruits. Within India, it is cultivated throughout India up to an altitude of 1800 m and also sometimes found wild. Misreya is an erect, glabrous, aromatic herb, 1-2 m high. The Fruits are usually entire with pedicel attached, mericarps, up to about 10 mm long and 4 mm broad, five sided with a wider commissural surface, tapering lightly towards base and apex, crowned with a conical stylopod, glabrous, greenish or yellowish-brown with five paler prominent primary ridges, endosperm, orthospermous.
Phytoconstituents :- Saunf contains Essential oil and fixed oil. which is rich in estragole and anethole. It is also contains minerals and vitamins like phosphorous, calcium, sodium, iron riboflavin, thiamine Vitamin C and niacin. Essential oil contains- fatty acids like petroselinic acid and palmitic acid.
Ayurvedic Properties :- Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Tikta, Guna : Laghu, Ruksa, Vipaka : Madhura, Virya : Sita, Karma : Anulomana, Amadosahara, Balya, Dipana, Vatapittahara.
Ayurvedic Applications :- Agnimandya, Arsas, Kasa, Pravahika, Raktadosa, Sula.
Medicinal Uses :- It is used in digestive problems like gas, biliousness, bad breath, vomiting, indigestion, constipation, flatulence, colic, colic in babies, atonic dyspepsia and reduces intestinal spasms, improves lactation, relieving menstrual problems, painful menstruation, relaxes muscle spasms and reduces inflammation. It is also used in relieving catarrah and coughs of the respiratory tract, bronchitis, asthma and lung abscesses. It is used in urinary disorders, sore throat and gum disease, Eye disorders, conjunctivitis, skin ailments and blepharitis of the eye.