Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Fabaceae / Leguminosae.
English : Baked beans, Dwarf bean, Flageolet bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Hindi : Rajma, Rajmah, Urdu : Tukhm baqila, Tukhm baqla muqqashar, Punjabi : Rajma, Kannada : Hurali kaayi, Capparadavare, Marathi : Chavli, Fejamv, Tamil : Cimaiyavarai, Vayalavarai, Malayalam : Rajma.
It is originated from Central and South America, where it was cultivated as early as 6000 BC in Peru and 5000 BC in Mexico. It was introduced to the Old World by the Spaniards and the Portuguese. It is now widespread and cultivated as a major food crop in many tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia. The common bean is a highly variable species with a long history. Bush cultivars / varieties form erect bushes 20–60 cm (8–20 in) tall, while pole or running cultivars/varieties form vines 2–3 m (7–10 ft) long. All cultivars / varieties bear alternate, green or purple leaves, which are divided into three oval, smooth-edged leaflets, each 6–15 cm (2–6 in) long and 3–11 cm (1–4 in) wide. The white, pink or purple flowers are about 1 cm long, and they give way to pods 8–20 cm (3–8 in) long and 1–1.5 cm wide. These may be green, yellow, black, or purple in color, each containing 4–6 beans. The beans are smooth, plump, kidney-shaped, up to 1.5 cm long, range widely in color, and are often mottled in two or more colors.
It contains protein, 22.9%; fat, 1.3%; carbohydrates, 60.6%; and minerals, 3.2%; Ca, 260 mg; P, 410 mg; and iron, 5.8 mg. The vitamin contents of the dried beans are: thiamine, 0.6; riboflavin, 0.2; nicotinic acid, 2.5; and ascorbic acid, 2.0 mg/100.
Rasa : Kasaya, Guna : Guru, Ruksa, Virya : Sita, Vipaka : Katu, Karma : Varnya,
Pachana, Depana, Kushta, Raktadosha, Atisara, Arocaka, Asmari, Hidhma.
It is used for the treatment of acne, bladder diseases, burns, cardiac diseases, and in diabetes, diarrhoea, dropsy, dysentery, eczema, hiccups, itching, kidney diseases, rheumatism, sciatica, and tenesmus.