Solanum nigrum L
Solanum americanum Mill.
English : Garden Night Shade, Hindi :Makoya, Sanskrit : Dhvanksamaci, Urdu :Makoh, Punjabi :Mako, Assamese : Kakamachi, Pikachia, Datkachu, Bengali : Gudakamai, Gujrati : Piludi, Kannada : Ganikayeagida, Ganikegida, ganike, Ganikesopu, Kagehanninagids, Malayalam : Karinthakkali, Manatakkali, Manjathakkali, Marathi : Kamoni, Oriya : Lunlunia, Lunilunika, Tamil : Manarthakkali, Manaththakkali, Manitakkali, Maniththakkali, Telugu : Kamanchi.
Makoya is a common herb or short-lived perennial shrub. This species is globally distributed in the tropics. Within India, it is said to be found throughout as a weed in disturbed habitats, roadsides and gardens.It reaches a height of 30 to 120 cm (12 to 47 in), leaves 4.0 to 7.5 cm (1.6 to 3.0 in) long and 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in) wide; ovate to heart-shaped, with wavy or large-toothed edges; both surfaces hairy or hairless; petiole 1 to 3 cm (0.5 to 1 in) long with a winged upper portion. The flowers have petals greenish to whitish, recurved when aged and surround prominent bright yellow anthers.The berry is mostly 6 to 8 mm (0.24 to 0.31 in) in diam., dull black or purple-black. In India, another strain is found with berries that turn red when ripe.
Makoya is contains, Alkaloids - solasodine (a steroidal glycol alkaloid that can be used to make 16-DPA progenitor), anthocyanidin, Saponins and polyphenols. The alkaloid Solanine, present in unripe fruits, is said to be toxic. there are reports that children have died from poisoning after eating unripe berries. However, the plant is rarely fatal, with ripe berries causing symptoms of mild abdominal pains, vomiting, and diarrhoea.
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Guna : Laghu, Sara, Snigdha, Vipaka : Katu, Virya : Usna, Karma : Bhedana, Hrdya, Pittahara, Rasayana, Svarya, Vrsya, Vtahara, Kaphahara
Sotha, Arsa, Jvara, Hrdroga, Kandu, Kustha, Prameha, Hikka, Chardi, Netraroga.
The whole plant of kakamaci is used in the form of juice to treat eye-diseases, rat poisoning, skin diseases, oedema, Inflammation, dysentery, stomach complaints,fever, cough, urticarial patches, for achieving conception and to relieve from difficult labour. As rejuvinative / Rasayana Kakamaci promotes strength. Traditionally the plant was used to treat tuberculosis. The boiled extracts of leaves and berries isalso used to alleviate liver-related ailments, including jaundice.