Botanical NameCurcuma longa L.
SynonymsCurcuma domestica Valeton, Curcuma brog Valeton, Curcuma ochrorhiza Valeton, Curcuma soloensis Valeton , Curcuma tinctoria Guibourt, Amomum curcuma Jacq, Stissera curcuma Raeusch, Curcuma longa var. vanaharidra Velay., Pandrav., J.K.George & Varapr.
Regional NameEnglish : Turmeric, Hindi :Haldi, Hardi, Sanskrit :Rajani, Nisa, Nisi, Ratri, Ksanada, Dosa, Urdu :Haldi, Punjabi :Haldi, Haldar, Assamese :Haldhi, Haladhi, Bengali :Halud, Haldi, Gujrati :Haldar, Kannada :Arishina, Kashmiri :Ledar, Ladhir, Malayalam :Manjal, Marathi :Halad, Oriya :Haladi, Tamil :Manjal, Telugu :Pasupu
DescriptionThis species is a native of southern Asia and is cultivated extensively throughout the warmer parts of the world. It is grown on a large scale in India, China and East Indies. Haridra is a perennial herbaceous plant extensively cultivated almost throughout India, particularly in Punjab, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala an altitude up to 1200 m. It reaches up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) tall, highly branched, yellow to orange, cylindrical, aromatic rhizomes are found. The leaves are alternate and arranged in two rows. Rhizomes ovate, oblong or pyriform (round turmeric) or cylindrical, often short branched (long turmeric), former about half as broad as long, latter 2-5 cm long and about 1-1.8 cm thick, externally yellowish to yellowish-brown with root scars and annulations of leaf bases, fracture horny, fractured surface orange to reddish brown, central cylinder twice as broad as cortex: odour and taste characteristic.
PhytoconstituentsEssential oil (volatile oils 75 %) and a colouring matter, phenolic compounds-Curcuminoids which include curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. The other major constituents are turmerone, zingiberene,cineole, α-phellantrene (9.1%), terpinolene (8.8%), 1,8-cinceole (7.3%), undecanol (7.1) and p-cymene (5.5%) and monoterpenes; starch, protein and high amounts of vitamin A and other vitamins.
Ayurvedic PropertiesRasa :Katu, Tikta, Guna :Ruksa, Vipaka :Katu, Virya :Usna, Karma :Krmighna, Kushaghna, Kaphapittanut, Pramehanasaka, Varnya, Visaghna, Ayurvedic Applications Kustha, Pandu, Pinasa, Prameha, Sitapitta, Tvagroga, Vrana, Visavikara
Medicinal UsesIt is taken as the blood purifier, and is very useful in the common cold, leprosy, dropsy, intermittent, affections of the liver, urinary tract infections, inflammation, swelling, pain and wound healing. It is used for contraception, swelling, insect stings, wounds, whooping cough, internal injuries, pimples, injuries, as a skin tonic. It is also used in liver ailments and jaundice.