Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm.
Gymnema sylvestre var. affine (Decne.) Tsiang, Gymnema sylvestre var. ceylanica Hook. f., Gymnema sylvestre var. ceylanicum Hook.f., Gymnema sylvestre var. chinense Benth., Gymnema sylvestre var. decaisneana (Wight) Thwaites, Gymnema sylvestre var. decaisneanum (Wight) Thwaites.
English : Periploca of the woods, Hindi : Gudmaar, Gurmar, Medhaasingee, Sanskrit : Madhunasini, Ajasrngi, Urdu : Sasinga, Bengali : Medhasingi, Gujrati : Kaavalee, Medhasinge, Kannada : Madhunashini, Kadhasige, Malayalam : Cakkarakkolli, Madhunaashini, Marathi : Kaavalee, Medhaashingi, Oriya : Lakshmi, Tamil : Sirukurinjan, Shakkaraikkolli, Shirukurumkaay, Telugu : Podapatro, Padapatri
Gudmar is an herb native to the tropical forests of southern and central India and Sri Lanka. In India, it is found in Karnataka, Kerala, Bihar, Bengal, Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Mesasrngi is a large stout woody climber much hairy branched, with pubescent young parts. Leaves are elliptic or obovate-acute, rarely pubescent above. Flowers are small, crowded umbelliform cymes and Fruits are slender, follicles, glabrous. Seeds are narrowly ovoid-oblong, flat with a broad thing wing, pale brown colour. Tap root branched, rough, longitudinally fissured, corky, soft and nodulose pieces, 2 to 7 cm long and 0.2 to 1.0 cm in thickness; external surface dark brown and cut surface showing a core cream in colour, fracture, splintery; odour, unpleasant; taste, bitter and acrid.
Gudmar contains triterpenoid saponins of gymnemic acid A, B, C and D with sugar residues such as glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, ferulic and angelic acids, gymnemagenin, gymnamosaponins, gymnestrogenin, stigmasterol, hexahydroterpene , gymnemic acid. The leaves also contain betaine, choline, gymnamine alkaloids, inositol and d-quercitol. Hydrocarbons such as nonacosane, hentriacontane, tritriacontane, pentatriacontane, phytin, resin, tartaric acid, form acid, butyric acid, gamma amino butyric acid, leucine, lupeol, isoleucine, valine, adenine, butyric acid.
Rasa : Tikta, Kasaya, Guna : Laghu, Ruksa, Vipaka : Katu, Virya : Usna, Karma : Dipana, Kaphahara, Mutrala, Sirovirecaka, Sramsana, Vatahara.
Aksisula, Svasa, Daha, Hrdroga, Kasa, Krmiroga, Kustha, Mutrakacchra, Prameha, Raktavikara, Vrana, Visavikara, Vidrdhi, Vatahara.
It is used in diabetes, weight loss and regulate the weight of the body. Whole plant is used for the treatment of cold, ulcer, piles, colic pain, skin diseases, rheumatism, blood-vessel inflammation, haemorrhoids, kill the worms and snake bites or wounds. It is useful in cough, fever, jaundice, anaemia, dental plaque, treatment of gastric troubles, treatment of dropsy, dysuria, glycosuria and eye problem. Plant extract is used as a liver tonic, appetizer, expectorant, stimulant, laxative and emetic.