Ricinus communis L.
Ricinus communis var. aegyptiaceus (Popova) Moshkin, Ricinus communis var. africanus Müll.Arg., Ricinus communis subsp. africanus (Mill.) Nyman, Ricinus communis var. amblyocalyx Müll.Arg., Ricinus communis var. americanus Mull.Arg., Ricinus communis f. atratus T.Carvalho.
English : Castor Oil Plant, Hindi : Erand, Rendee, Andeo, Sanskrit : Gandharva-Hasta, Panchangul, Vatari, Urdu : Erand, Punjabi : Erand, Assamese : Erri, Bengali : Bherenda, Gujrati : Erando, Kannada : Harlu, Malayalam : Abanakka, Avanakku, Marathi : Eramd, Eramdee, Oriya : Bheranda, Tamil : Amanakku, Telugu : Amudamu, Amudmuchetu.
Erand mool, Erand Oil
Erand is probably native to North East tropical Africa, globally distributed in the Pantropics and is also widely cultivated throughout. Within India, it is found wild in scrub forests of the outer Himalayas, it has been cultivated through the ages in Africa and India, now it is found almost throughout India up to an altitude of 2000 m. Erand is a tall glabrous shrub or almost small tree, 2-4 m high. It seeds are oblong, one face convex and the other slightly flattened, 1-1.5 cm long, 0.6-0.9 cm wide, 0.4-0.8 cm thick, testa hard, glossy, smooth, grey or brown to reddish brown or black and may be variously marbled or striped, raphe extends from the caruncle to chalaza; odour, not distinct; taste, weakly acrid.
Erand mainly contains Fixed Oil, Ricinine, quercetin 3-O-b-rutinoside (rutin). The Erand oil consists of ricinoleic acid, dihydroxystearic, linoleic, oleic, stearic acids and b-sitosterol. The seeds contain lipase, amylase, invertase, maltase, endotrypsin, glycolic acid, oxidase, ribonuclease, and a fat-soluble zymogen.
Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Kasaya, Guna : Snigdha, Suksma, Tiksna, Vipaka : Madhura, Virya : Usna, Karma : Dipana, Medohara, Amapacana, Vidbhedana, Anulomana, Srotosodhana, Vayasthapana
Amavata, Arsa, Grdhrasi, Vibandha, Yakrt Roga, Plihodara, Kati Sula.
It is used in internal medicine for diseases like severe constipation, worm infestation, rheumatism, intestinal inflammation and also for birth control. The Erand oil is used for external application to relieve furuncles, boils, muscle aches, back ache, headaches, stomach ache, menstrual cramps, vaginal and urinary infections, gall bladder pain, joint pains, inflammation of the middle ear, inflammatory skin disorders. The root are used for relieving liver disorders.