Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Family :- Araceae.
Colocasia antiquorum var. fontanesii (Schott) Schott, Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum (Schott) F.T.Hubb. & Rehder,, Colocasia esculenta var. fontanesii (Schott) A.F.Hill,, Colocasia fontanesii Schott,, Colocasia gaoligongensis H.Li & C.L.Long,, Colocasia gongii C.L.Long & H.Li,, Colocasia lihengiae C.L.Long & K.M.Liu,, Colocasia tonoimo Nakai.
English :- Green Taro, cocoyam, taro, aivi, dasheen, Hindi: Arvi, Ashukachu, Kachalu, Manipuri: Pan, Marathi: Aaloo, Chempu, Ran aalu, Tamil: Sempu, shamakkilangu, Malayalam: Chempu, Chempakizhanna, Telugu: Chamadumpa, Chamagadda, Chamakura, Kannada: Kesavedantu, Bengali: Kachu, Alti kachu, Oriya: Jongal saaru , Sanskrit: Aaluki, Alukam, Alupam, kachchi.
The plant was probably first native to the lowland wetlands of Malaysia (taloes). Estimates are that it was in cultivation in wet tropical India before 5000 BC, presumably coming from Malaysia, and from India further transported westward to ancient Egypt, where it was described by Greek and Roman historians as an important crop. It is grown year-round in subtropical and tropical areas. It is a tuberous bulb plant growing up to 2 m. tall. The leaves are up to 40×24.8 cm large, heart shaped, and resemble elephant ears.. Leaves sprouts from rhizome, dark green above and light green beneath, triangular-ovate, sub-rounded and mucronate at apex, tip of the basal lobes rounded or sub-rounded. Petiole 0.8 -1.2 m high. Spathe up to 25 cm long. Spadix about 3/5 as long as the spathe, flowering parts up to 8 mm in diameter. Rhizomes are of different shapes and sizes.
It contains flavonoids, ß-sitosterol, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins as major constituents. It is a good source of calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin C, starch and amino acids.
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya , Guna : Laghu, Ruksa , Virya : Usna , Vipaka : Katu , Karma : Kaphahara,
It is used to arrest arterial haemorrhage, used in ear ache and otorrhoea, and also as stimulant and rubefacient and also in internal haemorrhages. It is effective nervine tonic, antibacterial and hypotensive, leaves is used to promote menstruation, relieve stomach problems and to treat cysts, diarrhoea, poultice to boils, leaf stalk is used in treating conjunctivitis, It is used to create an appetite, used in wounds, stop wounds from bleeding. Stem leaf used on insect bites to prevent swelling and pain.