Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Ammi copticum L, Trachyspermum copticum (L.) Link, Carum copticum (L.) Benth.& Hook. f.
English : Bishop's Weed, Hindi : Ajwain, Jevain, Sanskrit : Yavani, Yamanika,Dipyaka, Punjabi : Lodhar, Urdu : Ajwain, Assamese : Jain, Bengali : Yamani, Yauvan, Yavan, Javan, Yavani, Yoyana Gujrati : Ajma, Ajmo, Yavan, Javain, Kannada : Oma, Yom, Omu, Kashmiri : Kath, Malayalam : Omam, Ayanodakan, Marathi : Onva, Oriya : Juani, Tamil :Omam, Telugu : Vamu.
Ajwain is a small, erect, annual shrub is cultivated in black soil particularly along the riverbank throughout in India. It is also grown in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Central Asian countries, China and Africa.Fruits are minute, egg shaped, ovoid, compressed, about 2 mm long and 1 mm wide. Surface of fruits is rough with soft fine hairs, greyish brown in colour with a characteristic odour and pungent taste.
The main chemical constituents of the fruit of the herb is 50% of essential oil which consists of thymol and 21.8% fat, 21.2% fibre, and 24.6% carbohydrates per 100 grams of the seeds. Fatty acids, contains palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, petroselenic acid and resin acid. Other monoterpenoids include dipentene, p-cymene, camphene, b-3-carene, carvacrol, limonene, myrcene; alpha, beta and gama- pinene and Glycosides. The main minerals in the seeds are calcium, phosphorus and iron, while its major vitamins are carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin.
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Guna : Laghu, Tiksna, Ruksa, Virya : Ushna, Karma : Sulahara, Anulomana, Dipana, Krmighna, Pacana, Rucya, Vipaka : Katu
Gulma, Sula, Adhmana, Anaha, Krmiroga, Udararoga.
Ajwain is used in Relieves diarrhea and colic due to their stimulating, carminative and anti-spasmodic properties. Yavani acts as expectorant. Relieves bronchitis, habitual drinking, sore-throat and decongest digestive and respiratory tracts. Relieves cough, cold, influenza, arthritis, asthma and rheumatism.