Hyoscyamus niger L.
Hyoscarpus niger (L.) Dulac, Hyoscyamus agrestis Kit., Hyoscyamus bohemicus F.W.Schmidt, Hyoscyamus pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willdenow
English : Henbane, Hindi : Khurasani Ajawayan, Sanskrit : Parasika Yavni, Urdu : Ajvayanee Khursanee, Punjabi : Khurasanee ajvain, Bangidewana, Bengali : Khorasani Ajoban, Gujarati : Khurasani Ajma, Kannada : Khurasani Oma , Malayalam : Khurasani Ova , Marathi : Khurasanee Ova, Tamil : Kurasani Yomam , Telugu : Khurasani Yamani.
It is globally distributed from North America to South West China. Within India, it has been recorded in Western Himalayan region of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in an altitude range from 2100 to 3300 m. It is an erect viscidly hairy, annual herb growing 30-150cm high. There are two forms of the plant, an annual and a biennial. The annual grows during the summer to a height of 30 to 60cm and then flowers and sets seed. The biennial produces only a tuft of basal leaves during the first season, which get disappear in winter and leaves underground a thick fleshy root Flowering and Fruiting occurs April-September. Stem grows up to few meters high.
Hyoscyamine, hyoscine, isomeric N-oxides of hyoscyamine , hyoscine-N-oxide , tropine;16á- acetoxyhyoscyamilactol, daturalactone-4, hyoscyamilactol; cannabisin D, cannabisin G, grossamide, hyoscyamide;rutinm daucosterol, ßsitosterol, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids
Rasa : Tikta, Katu , Guna : Guru , Ruksha , Virya : Ushna , Vipaka : Katu.
Dipana/ deepana, Grahi, Pachana, Pitta-kara, Kapha-hara, Vata-har, Madak Nidra-karak.
Khurasani ajwain is used for smoke to treat toothaches and asthma is widespread. It is used in treatment for anxiety, agitation, unease, insomnia and spasmodic digestive disorders. It is also used in Parkinson's disease and Neuralgia.